Gallium

Atomic Number: 31 Atomic Radius: 187 pm (Van der Waals)
Atomic Symbol: Ga Melting Point: 29.76 °C
Atomic Mass: 69.72 Boiling Point: 2204 °C
Electron Configuration:
[Ar] 4s2 3d10 4p1
Oxidation States: 3
Paul-Émile Lecoq
Gallium was discovered by Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875.

History

(L. Gallia: France; also from Latin, gallus, a translation of “Lecoq”, a cock) Predicted and described by Mendeleev as ekaaluminum, and discovered spectroscopically by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875, who in the same year obtained the free metal by electrolysis of a solution of the hydroxide in KOH.

Sources

Gallium is often found as a trace element in diaspore, sphalerite, germanite, bauxite, and coal. Some flue dusts from burning coal have been shown to contain as much 1.5 percent gallium.

Gallium
Gallium.

Properties

It is one of four metals — mercury , cesium , and rubidium — which can be liquid near room temperature and, thus, can be used in high-temperature thermometers. It has one of the longest liquid ranges of any metal and has a low vapor pressure even at high temperatures.

There is a strong tendency for gallium to supercool below its freezing point. Therefore, seeding may be necessary to initiate solidification.

Ultra-pure gallium has a beautiful, silvery appearance, and the solid metal exhibits a conchoidal fracture similar to glass. The metal expands 3.1 percent on solidifying; therefore, it should not be stored in glass or metal containers, because they may break as the metal solidifies.

High-purity gallium is attacked only slowly by mineral acids.

Gallium - semiconductors
Gallium is widely used in doping semiconductors.

Uses

Gallium wets glass or porcelain and forms a brilliant mirror when it is painted on glass. It is widely used in doping semiconductors and producing solid-state devices such as transistors.

Magnesium gallate containing divalent impurities, such as Mn+2, is finding use in commercial ultraviolet-activated powder phosphors. Gallium arsenide is capable of converting electricity directly into coherent light. Gallium readily alloys with most metals, and has been used as a component in low-melting alloys.

Handling

Its toxicity appears to be of a low order, but should be handled with care until more data is available.

Source:

Los Alamos National Laboratory, Periodic Table of Elements, http://periodic.lanl.gov/list.shtml.